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Difference Between Chemotherapy and Immunotherapy

CHEMOTHERAPY
It is a one of the chemical drug therapies which aims to mitigate the number of rapidly growing cancer cells in the body. It shrinks the tumor size and also reduces current symptoms.
Side Effects
It results in low blood platelet count, anemia, loss of hair, weight,and appepite.It also affects skin ,blood, nails, lining of intestinal tract, increases susceptibility to infections etc.
Chemo also reduces WBC count results in reduced immunity.

Doses:
Overall dose is measured in milligrams(mg) and based on person’s body weight in kilograms(kg).
For instance, if standard dose is 10 mg per kg, then a person weighing 50kgs would get 500mgs of drug.
Some doses are also determined based on body surface area (BSA) using height and weight.

Types:
Alkylating agents : Work directly on DNA and kills cancer cells.
Antimetabolites: Mimic protein necessary for the cell survival.
Plant Alkaloids:Block the cell growth and division
Antitumor antibiotics: Bind with DNA and stop RNA from synthesizing

IMMUNOTHERAPY
Also known as biologic therapy, aims at restoring immune system in order to destroy cancer cells.Stimulation of patient’s immune system is the major focus.

Side effects:
It causes headaches, diarrhoea, sinus congestion, swelling of legs , weight gain, cough etc.

Types:
Monoclonal antibodies:Man-made versions of immune system proteins.
Cancer vaccines: Substance put into the body to improve immune response.
Checkpoint inhibitors: Disallow cancer cells to avoid immune system attack indirectly.
Adoptive cell transfer:
Active T cells( white blood cells) are taken from the tumor and grown in large batches in the lab.